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Glossary

1 Year Data – Data for the most recently completed academic year, from September 1st to August 31st (example: September 2005-August 2006).

3 Year Data –1 year data and data from the two preceding years (example: from September 2003-August 2006). The three-year aggregated data is calculated by determining each examinee’s pass/fail status at the time his/her score was reported. The data is not an average of the three "one-year" data together.

Attending Institution (AI): Appears as “College Name” for the college/university identified by the examinee as their preparing institution. If an examinee listed more than one attending institution code, the attending institution code used in the data file is the one indicated for the most recently reported highest score. If no attending institution was identified, the examinee’s pass rates will be listed as “Other” and not included in a specific institution’s pass rates.

Candidate - A person seeking Pennsylvania certification in any of the areas outlined in 22 Pa. Code, Chapter 49.

College and University Category - Colleges and universities are classified according to mission and control as follows:

  • The Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (PASSHE) stems from the Normal School Act of 1857, which established teacher-training institutions throughout Pennsylvania. The School Code of 1911 called for the state purchase of all normal schools, and the present configuration of the 14 state-owned institutions was established by 1921. The 14 institutions evolved from state normal schools to state teacher colleges to state colleges. On November 12, 1982, Act 188 established the Pennsylvania State System of Higher Education (effective July 1, 1983);
  • Private two-year and four-year colleges, universities and seminaries constitute the vast majority of the higher education institutions in Pennsylvania. Each private institution has specific degree granting authority based on the laws in effect at the time of approval and on the type of operation requested;
  • State-aided institutions receive a direct Commonwealth appropriation for offering programs that fulfill "public interest" that are not being met by a State-supported institution;

ETS – Education Testing Service – a private non-profit organization that develops and administers the examinations used for verifying knowledge and competencies of Pennsylvania's teacher education candidates.

National Highest Cut Score – the highest passing score in effect for the entire period (1 year or 3 year) in any of the approximately 36 states using ETS tests.

  • If a score changed during the time period, the current highest score was listed.
  • For Praxis I composite, there is no comparable score to the PA composite therefore this field is blank.

Number Of Examinees - The number of people testing for the entire period (either 1 year or 3 years). Each person is only counted once regardless of how many times he/she took a particular test code.

  • For the Praxis I tests listed by test code, an examinee was assigned to a particular test code (paper or computer) based on the highest score he/she achieved during the entire period (1 year or 3 years). If multiple high scores existed, the test code with the most recent reporting date was used.
  • For the Praxis I tests listed as "composite score pass rates,"; a person’s highest score on each subject test (regardless of testing mode) during the entire period (1 year or 3 years) was used to compute the individual’s composite score. The examinees included in this column took all three subject areas (reading/writing/math) but did not pass one or more of the tests using the PA passing score at the required cut score, so the system looks at the scores to see if the minimum scores and the total composite score is met. If the minimum scores/composite score is met, the examinee is considered passing. Examinees who took only one or two of the subject areas are excluded from these data.

Number Of Tests Taken - The total number of tests taken, for each test code, during the entire named period (either 1 year or 3 years). Since some examinees changed their AI codes during the year, the total number of tests taken listed by AI code may not coordinate exactly with the Number of Examinees (see below for description) listed by AI code. Any examinee that changed their AI code is counted in each of the AI code(s) he/she listed.

  • In the case of Praxis I, the number of tests taken listed by individual test codes will not necessarily coordinate with the number of examinees because an examinee can test using either the paper and/or computer mode. Each mode has its own test code: paper test codes are 0710, 0720, and 0730 whereas computer test codes are 5710, 5720, 5730.
  • Since the Praxis I composite score data contains information on all three tests using both testing formats, the total number of tests taken is not listed in the data files.

Number Pass First Score-Highest Cut - The percent of examinees achieving a passing core based on the highest national passing score in effect when their score was reported.

  • For each candidate, the first time he or she took the test code during the time period (1 year or 3 years) was used;
  • Each individual was designated as either a pass or fail based on the highest national passing score in effect when that individual’s score was reported. This data was used to provide the percentage of individuals achieving a passing score.
  • For Praxis I composite (9999), there is no comparable score to the PA composite therefore this field is blank.

Number Pass First Score-PA Cut - The examinee score used in these data was determined by looking across the entire period (1 year or 3 years) and selecting the score from the first date that a candidate tested during that period.

  • The number of examinees achieving a passing score based on the PA passing score in effect at the time their score was reported.
  • For each candidate, the first time he or she took the test code during the time period (1 year or 3 years) was used. Each individual was designated as either a pass or fail based on the PA passing score in effect at the time that individual’s score was reported. Then the number of individuals achieving a passing score was calculated.

Number Pass High Score-Highest National Cut - The number of examinees achieving a passing score based on the highest national passing score in effect when their score was reported.

  • Each individual was designated as either a pass or fail based on the highest national passing score in effect at the time that individual’s score was reported. Then the number of individuals achieving a passing score was calculated.
  • For Praxis I composite, there is no comparable score to which we can compare the PA composite therefore this field is blank.

Number Pass High Score-PA Cut - The number of examinees achieving a passing score based on the PA passing score in effect at the time their score was reported.

  • Each individual was designated as either a pass or fail based on the PA passing score in effect at the time that individual’s score was reported. Then the number of individuals achieving a passing score was calculated.
  • PA Cut Score - The current PA passing score in effect for the entire period (1 year or 3 years). If a score changed during the time period, the current highest score was listed.

    PA Cut Score - % of Examinees Passed - The percent of examinees achieving a passing score based on the PA passing score in effect at the time their score was reported. Each individual was designated as either a pass or fail based on the PA passing score in effect at the time that individual’s score was reported. Then the % of individuals achieving a passing score was calculated.

    PA Cut Score - % Passed on First Attempt - The percent of examinees achieving a passing score based on the PA passing score in effect when their score was reported.

    • For each candidate, the first time he or she took the test code during the time period (1 year or 3 years) was used.
    • Each individual was designated as either a pass or fail based on the PA passing score in effect at the time that individual’s score was reported. Then the percentage of individuals achieving a passing score was calculated.

    % of Examinees Achieving Highest National Cut Score - The percent of examinees achieving a passing score based on the highest national passing score in effect when their score was reported.

    • Each individual was designated as either a pass or fail based on the highest national passing score in effect at the time that individual’s score was reported. Then the percentage of individuals achieving a passing score was calculated.
    • For Praxis I composite, there is no comparable score to which we can compare the PA composite therefore this field is blank.

    Pass Rate Calculation - The examinee's highest score achieved during the 1 year or 3 year period. In the event of multiple tests for an examinee, the data file uses the highest score. If more than one test result during the 1 year or 3 year period with the same high score, the data file uses the most recently reported score.

    Percent Pass First Score-Highest National Cut - The percent of examinees achieving a passing score based on the highest national passing score in effect when their score was reported.

    • For each candidate, the first time he or she took the test code during the time period (1 year or 3 years) was used.
    • Each individual was designated as either a pass or fail based on the highest national passing score in effect at the time that individual’s score was reported. Then the percent of individuals achieving a passing score was calculated.
    • For Praxis I composite (9999), there is no comparable score to which we can compare the PA composite therefore this field is blank.

      Percent Passed First Score PA Cut Score - The percent of examinees achieving a passing score based on the PA passing score in effect when their score was reported.

      • For each candidate, the first time he or she took the test code during the time period (1 year or 3 years) was used.
      • Each individual was designated as either a pass or fail based on the PA passing score in effect at the time that individual’s score was reported. Then the percent of individuals achieving a passing score was calculated.

      Percent of Examinees Achieving Highest National Cut Score - The percent of examinees achieving a passing score based on the highest national passing score in effect whentheir score was reported.

      • Each individual was designated as either a pass or fail based on the highest national passing score in effect when that individual’s score was reported. Then the percent of individuals achieving a passing score was calculated.
      • For Praxis I composite, there is no comparable score to which we can compare the PA composite therefore this field is blank.

      Percent Pass High Score-PA Cut - The percent of examinees achieving a passing score based on the PA passing score in effect when their score was reported.

      • Each individual was designated as either a pass or fail based on the PA passing score in effect when that individual’s score was reported. Then the percent of individuals achieving a passing score was calculated.

      PPST – Pre-Professional Skills Testing - Three of the tests are considered Pre-Professional Skills Tests (PPST) that are usually taken by the teacher candidate prior to being accepted into the professional phase of a teacher education program. According to ETS, they include:

      • PPST in Reading which “measures the ability to understand and to analyze and evaluate written messages”;
      • PPST in Writing which “assesses the ability to use grammar and language appropriately and the ability to communicate effectively in writing”; and
      • PPST in Mathematics which “measures those mathematical skills and concepts,” and “focuses on the key concepts of mathematics and on the ability to solve problems and to reason in a quantitative context.”

      PPST Composite Score - The Pre-Professional Skills Tests (PPST) can be passed by use of a "composite score" which requires a candidate to obtain a minimum score in each of the three tests (R-171, W-170, M-171), but the total of the three scores must be equal to a composite cut score of 521 for all three tests.

      Program Category – Lists the various types of certificates. An Instructional Certificate is required to qualify for a Supervisory or Administrative Certificate.

      • The Instructional Certificate is issued to a person whose primary responsibility shall be direct instructional contact with learners in teaching-learning situations.
      • The Educational Specialist Certificate is issued to a person whose primary responsibility shall be to render professional service other than classroom teaching.
      • The Supervisory Certificate is issued to a person whose primary responsibility shall be to supervise educational programs and direct the activities of professional and nonprofessional employees in such programs.
      • The Administrative Certificate is issued to a person whose primary responsibility shall be to direct, operate, supervise and administer the organizational and general education activities of a school.

      Test Code – code to identify the specific test for which information is being reported.

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